Thứ Ba, 18 tháng 6, 2019

EDUCATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM (UK)

EDUCATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

The four divisions that make up the United Kingdom-England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales-have separate educational systems. Each system is run by its own government department, which works closely with local school authorities. 
Children in the United Kingdom are required by law to begin school at the age of 5, except for children in Northern Ireland, who must begin school at the age of 4. The children are required to continue in school until they are 16. Generally, students attend primary (elementary) school until they are 11 or 12 years old. After that point, they attend secondary (high) school. There are several types of high schools in the United Kingdom. Some high schools provide a college preparatory education. Others stress a more technical or vocational education. However, most students attend comprehensive schools, which provide all types of high school education. 
The majority of British schoolchildren attend free primary schools and high schools that are supported by public funds. The rest go to private institutions called independent schools that are supported by fees paid by parents and by private gifts of money. There are several types of independent schools. The best known are the English public schools, which provide high school education. Although these schools are actually private institutions, they are called public schools because the earliest of these schools were established for the children of the middle classes. Some of these schools-such as Eton, Harrow, and Winchester-traditionally have trained students for the practice of law and for high-ranking positions in the government, the Church of England, and the armed forces. 
Institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom include two of the oldest and most famous universities in the world: the University of Oxford, founded in the 1100's, and the University of Cambridge, probably established in 1209. The University of London is the United Kingdom's largest traditional university. The Open University has more students, but it has no regular classrooms. Instead, the Open University provides instruction by radio, television, correspondence, the Internet, and other methods. Other universities in the United Kingdom include the University of Wales and the University of Glamorgan, in Wales; the universities at Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and St. Andrews, in Scotland; and Queen's University Belfast and the University of Ulster, in Northern Ireland. 

Although mainly supported by public funds, universities in the United Kingdom are not part of the government-run system of education. Instead, they are independent, self-governing bodies. The universities themselves decide what subjects they teach, what degrees they award, and what staff they appoint. The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) reviews the standards of the schools. 

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