Thứ Ba, 18 tháng 6, 2019


Communication is the sharing of information. People communicate both interpersonally (between individuals) and through communications systems that transmit messages between large numbers of people. 

Individuals communicate using many different modes-that is, in many different ways. For example, they may communicate through gestures and facial expressions as well as by speaking and writing.

Communications systems, also called media, range from long-used systems, such as books, to new systems, such as the Internet, a worldwide network of computers. Other major media include newspapers and magazines, sound recordings, film, telephone and telegraph networks, radio, and television. Together, the communications media form a vast industry of great social importance. 


Interpersonal Communication

No one knows how human communication began, but most scholars believe that communication through language began at least 150,000 years ago. The emergence of language was a decisive factor in the growing ability of early human beings to work together to make and use tools, shelters, and other products. 

People communicate using not only language, but also other modes, such as gesture and body position, mathematics, and music. Modes of communication also include visual images, such as works of art. They vary in their use from culture to culture and from person to person. Individuals are often better at using one mode than another. Acts of communication often employ more than one mode. 

Communication using language requires both a physical component-the central nervous system and muscle coordination-and cultural learning. Beginning early in life, human beings develop a basic understanding of several forms of communication. For example, babies about six months old begin to use hand gestures and distinct syllables simultaneously to express themselves. Face-to face interaction with other people during the first three years of life is essential for a child to form the ability to communicate. 

Communications systems are widely used in schools, businesses, government agencies, and households. Some communications systems, such as the telephone system, are networks through which users mainly exchange messages one-to-one. Others, such as magazines and radio or television broadcasting operations, transfer messages to many people at once. The Internet is an example of a hybrid system, capable of communicating both oneto-one and one-to-many. 
Millions of people around the world work in the communications industry. Many kinds of workers are needed to make a communications system function. The television industry, for example, relies on writers, camera operators, technicians, and on-air talent. It also employs salespeople to sell advertising time, market researchers to study audience habits, and many other specialists. 

Communications systems are organized differently in different countries. In the United States, electronic communications systems developed as private businesses whose main goal was to earn profits. In most other countries, they began as government services financed primarily through service revenues and taxes. Most telephone systems originally operated as parts of national postal services. In some countries, government subsidies helped support newspapers. 
Economic forces shape and limit communications systems. For example, in many areas, television networks develop programs and services to help advertisers target desired audiences. Telecommunication systems are well developed in wealthy countries, but they have only begun to expand into developing regions.

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